General layout

Detailed instructions for Authors and examples of chapter contributions are provided below. Authors of introductory chapters are given a more or less free hand to structure chapters as they feel appropriate for later amendment by the Editors, but systematic chapter contributions should follow the below standard headings. Additional headings that are relevant may be considered by the Editors, if applicable.

NB: the examples provided below are hypothetical examples only, are drawn from more than one source, and are not necessarily intended to be scientifically accurate.

1. Chapter headings

The first page should include the name of FAMILY and (SUPERFAMILY) covered, e.g. “CURTONOTIDAE (EPHYDROIDEA)”, followed by vernacular name/s, or introductory chapter title, e.g. “MEDICAL AND VETERINARY SIGNIFICANCE”.

e.g.

103. CURTONOTIDAE (Quasimodo flies or Hunchbacked flies)

or (for introductory chapters)

4. MEDICAL AND VETERINARY SIGNIFICANCE

Systematic chapter numbers have now been confirmed by the Editors and a list is available at the following link: Systematic chapter numbers

2. Address and e-mail address/es of author/s
Full institutional postal address of all author/s and e-mail contact address/es.
e.g. (for single authored contributions)

Ashley H. Kirk-Spriggs

Department of Entomology, National Museum, P.O. Box 266, Bloemfontein, South Africa; e-mail: ashley.kirk-spriggs@masmus.co.za

e.g. (for dual-authored chapters)

John Chainey1 & Ashley H. Kirk-Spriggs2

1Entomology Department, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom; e-mail: j.chainey@nhm.ac.uk

2Department of Entomology, National Museum, P.O. Box 266, Bloemfontein, South Africa; e-mail: ashley.kirk-spriggs@masmus.co.za

e.g. (for multi-authored chapters) – addresses as above.

Ashley H. Kirk-Spriggs1, Mike B. Mostovski2 & David Barraclough3

Author addresses shall eventually appear in the preface sections of each volume, and this shall be undertaken by the Editors at a later stage.

3. Frontispiece illustration(systematic chapters only)
Each systematic chapter contribution shall be accompanied by at least one photograph of a living fly, provided by Stephen Marshall (if available). This serves to provide the general reader with a visual picture of the habitus of a species of the family and to illustrate typical characters expressed in that family. Scale bars need not be provided for illustrations as in many cases these are drawn from other published sources where bars are not available.

The Editors will decide later whether legends shall be inserted below illustrations in each systematic chapter or whether the list of frontispiece illustrations shall appear in the preface pages of each volume.

4. Diagnosis
This should comprise a detailed diagnosis of the family which covers the genera occurring in the Afrotropical Region. It should comprise the major diagnostic character states of the family and be written in telegraphic style.

e.g.

Diagnosis. The family Curtonotidae can be diagnosed as follows (based on Marshall et al. (in press), with amendments): Small to medium-sized (4–9 mm), distinctively robust flies, with a hump-backed, drosophilid- or heleomyzid-like form, usually greyish to yellow, often with spots, strips or irrorations on the thorax and pigment patterns on the abdomen. Arista plumose, with long dorsal and ventral rays; rays varying in number. Wing pigmentation varying from hyaline to lightly fumose (especially on r-m and dm-cu crossveins), or boldly patterned; subcosta complete, cell cup present, cells dm and bm confluent, and costa (c) with humeral and subcostal breaks. Abdomen with aedeagus enlarged, C-shaped, distiphallus anteroventrally-directed; two spermathecae present.

A more lengthy diagnosis may be required for the larger more variable families; see chapter examples.

5. Biology and immature stages
This section should comprise a résumé of the known biology of the family, including details of known immature stages, especially (but not exclusively) related to the genera occurring in the Afrotropics. Authors are encouraged to cite all relevant references or reviews that may be of use to the general reader. Illustrations of the egg, larva and puparium of at least one Afrotropical species (if available), or else of a species from another zoogeographical region typical of the group, should be included where known. Figures of previously published illustrations shall either be re-drawn (by the Manual’s scientific illustrator), or else permission to reproduce these in the Manual must be secured by the author/s prior to submission from the original copyright holder and author (if still living). Such agreements should be noted at the end of the relevant figure legends and in the acknowledgments of the chapter contribution. See chapter examples.

6. Economic significance (if any)
This section should highlight those genera or species which are of economic significance or of potential economic significance, e.g. agricultural pests, vectors of disease, pollinators, potential agents in biological control, etc. If the group concerned does not include known species of economic significance, then a simple statement to the fact should be added under this heading, i.e. “No species of economic significance are currently known”. The Editors will decide whether to include these headings or omit them later. Note that this is a section not included in the chapter examples.

7. Classification
In the first paragraph the phylogenetic placement of the family within higher taxonomic rankings should be outlined, with reference to the most recent literature. Conflicting views of current placements should also be discussed, where applicable. Historical classifications of the group can also be briefly reviewed. Each subfamily should then be discussed in turn with a general description, habitat range, distinctive biology and reference to recent keys and other literature. See chapter examples.

8. Identification
Before the keys the author(s) should provide a brief review (one paragraph) of the keys and overviews currently available for the family. Any specific notes on the below keys or comments on the keys that the user need know about should also be included in this section. See chapter examples.

9. Keys to genera of the Afrotropical Region
Keys should be to generic level only, but in groups where large genera are sub-divided into well-supported subgenera or species-groups these may also be included (e.gSimulium in the Simuliidae). Keys should also include higher taxonomic rankings, such as subfamilies, tribes, etc. as applicable. Only genera known to occur, or likely to occur, in the Afrotropical Region should be included in the keys. Those not currently known to occur should be indicated at the end of the couplet, i.e. “(not recorded from the Afrotropical Region)”. Authors are encouraged to provide illustrations of key characters, wherever possible, to aid the user in identification. An example of the format to be used is provided below:

Write keys with the user in mind and please note that each complete much have consistently comparable character states, e.g. if the couple 1 reads “Stem vein of wing without setulae on dorsal surface of basal section” the alternative to couple 1 must give an alternative state of the Stem vein (as below). The use of “Without this combination of characters” should be avoided whenever possible as it is too ambiguous.

For each couplet use a number followed by a full stop (period) for each numbered couplet and an en-dash (–) for the alternative couplet.

Figure numbers should be included in the key after the relevant character state, should be in brackets, and should be ordered as close as is possible on the plates in the order in which they appear in the key. Use “(Fig. XX.3) if a chapter number has not yet been allocated to you.

At the end of each couple use a single bar space, followed by a row of dots (periods), a single bar space, followed by the leading couplet number or taxon name. Full stops should not be used after leading couple numbers.

Higher taxon names (above the generic level) in upper case, Roman, without author names; generic and subgeneric names in title case, Italic script, followed by author name. Species-groups, Lower case, Roman, with hyphen, i.e. “Cuthbertsoni species-group”.

Examples of key structure and format 
[Note the following examples have been lifted from a published paper and amended to illustrate Manual format only, and may not reflect true relationships and monophly] 

1.  Stem vein of wing without setulae on dorsal surface of basal section (Fig. 23.1) ...................................................................................................................... 2
–  Stem vein with distinct setulae on postero-dorsal surface of basal section (Fig. 23.2) .............................................................................................................. 6
2. Posterior parasquamal tuft of black setulose erect hairs present on a small well-defined black sclerite (Fig. 23.3) .......................................................LUCILIINAE
–  Posterior parasquamal tuft absent ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3
3. Katatergite almost entirely clothed in long upstanding hairs (Fig. 23.4) ............................................................................................................. PHUMOSIINAE
–  Katatergite bare or at most pubescent ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8. Katatergite clothed in long, upstanding, fine hairs (Fig. 23.5) ..................................................................................................... Hemipyrellia Townsend
–  Katatergite bare or pubescent (as in Figs 23.5–7) .......................................................................................................................... Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy

10. Synopsis of the fauna
Following the key, authors should provide a brief (one paragraph) synopsis of each genus known to occur in the Afrotropical Region. This should indicate the geographical range of the genus, the number of species currently known worldwide and specifically from the Afrotropics, the probable number of undescribed species, general appearance and/or distinguishing features, specific habitat requirements (if known), e.g. “… restricted to Afromontane forests”, or “… only occurring in the arid parts of southwestern Africa”, and recent/currently used literature on the genus (specifically keys), etc., with the author(s) assessment of validity.

11. Acknowledgements
Acknowledgments should be kept concise. These should include the names of those individuals and institutions that provided information or specimens used in the contribution and others who have rendered assistance, e.g. “We wish to thank Margie Cochrane (Iziko Museum of Cape Town, South Africa), who provided specimens used in this study, and Wayne Mathis (National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., USA), who supplied relevant literature and information on the genus Karema.” Funding bodies and employing institutions may also require acknowledgment.

12. Literature cited
Only literature cited in the chapter text should be included in this section (i.e. a reference list not a bibliography). Details of text citations for references and examples of reference list citations are provided below. Authors are urged to follow these examples to the letter, including the use of punctuation marks, upper and lower case, use of italics and bold text, etc., in order to reduce the input of the Editors.

List all references according to the following guidelines; authors in lower, title case, periodical titles cited in full in exact accordance to volumes 1–3 and supplements of the International List of Periodicals. When in doubt, list a reference in a manner that would be most conducive to its future tracing. References to Internet sites should be included in the reference list.

e.g.

Oldroyd, H. 1965. The natural history of flies. New York: Norton.

Raynor, N.A. 1990. The freshwater Diaptomidae (Calonoida: Copepoda) of southern Africa. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Natal, South Africa (unpublished).

Schumacher, M.J., Schmidt, J.O., Egen, N.B. & Dillon, K.A. 1992. Biochemical variability of venoms from individual European and Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera). Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 90: 59–65.

Smith, K.G.V. & Vockeroth, J.R. 1980. 38. Family Syrphidae. In: Crosskey, R.W., ed., Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region. London: British Museum (Natural History), pp. 488–510.

Stuckenberg, B.R. 1960. Chapter XII Diptera (Brachycera): Rhagionidae. In: Hanström, B., Brinck, P. & Rudebeck, G., eds, South African animal life. Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951, Volume 7. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, pp. 216–308.

13. Tables and Illustrations
Tables: Each on a separate page, captions above. Structure tables so as they may be comfortably printed horizontally across the page to fill the matter size to be specified including legend. Do not use spaces to format tables and avoid the use of complex tab stops.

Illustrations: Authors are encouraged to submit illustrations, especially those that will facilitate use of the keys. If these are deemed suitable for inclusion in the Manual and comply to the format of the Manual they shall be used as is, if not these may be re-worked or re-drawn by our Graphics Editor. In cases where authors are unable to produce their own illustrations these can be undertaken by the illustrator on the author/s behalf. In the last mentioned case, authors should liaise direct with our Graphics Editor to ensure that the relevant structures on appropriate species are correctly undertaken.

Number all figures consecutively taking care that numbers and figure labels are appropriately placed. Figure numbers, not letters should be used when labelling figures and these should run in natural sequence left to right, as in the example below. Authors should ensure that they use bold numbers and a font of suitable size (size to be confirmed at a later date) that allows for reduction. It is advisable that authors submit a low quality JPEG mock-up of their plates before submitting the final plate to allow the Graphics Editor to suggest changes if necessary. Final plates should ideally be submitted in formats compatible with either Photoshop CS2 or CorelDraw 11. Please include layers when saving the files as it will greatly increase workflow in regards to modifying plate layout and numbering if necessary. Alternatively, authors may submit all illustrations separately, numbering them accordingly. The Graphics Editor will then create the plates from these. Lettering and numbering fonts will be specified at a later date. Legends should be on a separate page. Good contrast colour photographs may be submitted. Digitised illustrations for final production should be high quality TIF files (1200 dpi) and care should be taken that these are correctly saved as black and white, grey scale or colour images, as appropriate. Scale bars need not be provided for all illustrations as in many cases these are drawn from other sources where bars are not available. Numbering or lettering on the plates/drawings should not be included on the originals, but indicated on a separate file or printout. These will be added when the plates are constructed.

14. Use of photographs
The use of colour photographs is encouraged, but these should be high quality and be of sufficient number to make up a text plate (i.e. minimum 2). Photographs should be submitted as TIF files, being at least 300 dpi at print size. If authors intend to make up the plates themselves it is advisable to first send a low quality JPEG mock-up of the plate via email as to allow the Graphics Editor to comment and make suggestions to the author. After approval the author may then submit a final high quality tiff plate (please include layers).

15. Legends to figures
Figure legends should be kept as simple as possible. Examples of legends are provided below and the author(s) are again encouraged to follow such examples to the letter to reduce editorial input.

e.g.

Fig. 110.1. Male of Scathophaga longiaculeata Ozerov.

Figs 110.2–5. Wing, head, sternites and terminalia of males: (2) Wing of Scathophaga longiaculeata Ozerov; (3) Head of Scathophaga alata (Becker), oblique view; (4) Sternite 4 (above) and 5 (below) of Scathophaga soror (Wiedemann); (5) Epandrium, cerci and surstyli of Scathophaga soror, oblique view. Figs 4, 5 (Ozerov 2012, figs 3, 4).

Abbreviations: A1A2 – first and second branches of anal vein; C – costal vein; CuA1CuA2 – branches of anterior branch of cubutal vein; dm–cu – discal medial-cubital crossvein; fr – frontal seta; i vt – inner vertical seta; M1 – media, or medial vein; o vt – outer vertical seta; oc – ocellar seta; or – orbital seta; poc – postocellar seta; R – radius, or radial vein; r–m – radial-medial crossvein; Sc – subcosta.

Figs 110.6–9. Third-instar larva of Scathophaga stercoraria (L.): (6) Anterior spiracle, dorsal view; (7) Cephaloskeleton, lateral view; (8) Anal division, lateral view; (9) Same, caudal view. (Figs 6–9 after Zimin 1948: figs 19C, 19A, 19D1, 19D, respectively)

16. Proofs
When the Editors are satisfied with the layout and content, a pdf file of the galley proofs shall be forwarded to the author/senior author for checking and correction of minor errors. No costly changes or inclusions shall be allowed at that stage.

17. Off-prints
Each author receives, without charge, a PDF file of their paper, which can be freely distributed for scientific purposes, and a full printed copy of the volume in which his/her chapter appears.