Instructions to Authors

1. Submissions

Chapter submissions should initially be sent the Editors via e-mail for assessment and distribution to the relevant member of the Editorial Panel. Only electronic submissions are acceptable. Submit manuscripts as Word documents (.doc, not .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) documents, either as e-mail attachments, or (in a case of large files) on a CD. Figures should initially be sent as low-resolution JPEG files for the refereeing process. Authors should liaise with the Editors as to system compatibility for final submission of illustration files (see section on Tables and Illustrations).

2. Formatting manuscripts

Text formatting should follow these instructions, with document formatting kept simple, without imbedded internal style or other document formatting, complex tab stops, etc. For example, end notes and acknowledgements should be typed on the appropriate pages and not included as internal text; authors must not use text styles other than Normal (no Heading styles, etc.). Submitted manuscripts that do not conform to these Instructions for Authors, or require extensive English language editing, will be returned. The corresponding author is responsible to ensure that the final content of manuscripts is agreed upon by all co-authors. The Editors reserve the right to make minor editorial changes that do not effect the author's meaning.

Manuscripts should be in Times New Roman 12 pt font and 1.5 line-spaced, with a 2.5 cm margin on all sides, all pages to be numbered consecutively. All contributions should be written according to British English (not US) standard. For general style and layout refer to the notes below and to the chapter examples.

For systematic chapters the text should be arranged under the following headings: Diagnosis, Biology and Immature stages, Economic Importance (if applicable), Classification, Identification, Key to genera, Synopsis of the Fauna, Acknowledgements and Literature cited. The main body of the text should be followed by legends to figures, tables with legends, figures (see detailed notes below).

For introductory chapters headings are more flexible, but reduce headings to a minimum where paragraphs would suffice and avoid hierarchies of nested sub-headings. When first referring to a particular genus or species-group name, always cite authority, date of publication and relationship in full, according to the relevant Code of Nomenclature. Do not abbreviate author names for taxa, except Linnaeus (L.) and Fabricius (F.). Electronic submissions should not include special characters; use *M for male symbol, *F for female symbol (see notes below), *T for times symbol. Cite international codens for institutions according to the Insect and Spider Collections of the World.

3. Use of adult terminology

Morphological terminology usage should exactly follow that provided in the Adult Terminolgy Guidelines. In the case of groups that have specific terminology for the family (e.g. the head setation in the Phoridae), illustrations should be provided with the relevant structures clearly labelled. Abbreviations used must also be consistent.

4. Citation of published information

Cite references in text as, e.g. Smith (1910); (Smith 1915a); Smith & Thompson (1920, 1922); or Smith et al. (1930) (for three or more authors). In the case of multiple citations arrange names chronologically, e.g. Brain 1840, 1841; Adamson 1914; Stevenson 1962 (note use of semicolon and comma). Page numbers must be provided for all quotes cited, e.g. Smith (1910: 135) or Smith (1910: 135–138).

5. Citation of unpublished information

Cite unpublished information as, e.g. Smith (submitted), Smith (accepted), or Smith (in press), which should then appear in the reference list, or Smith (unpubl.), Smith (in prep.) or A. Smith (pers. comm. 2009), acknowledgements of which should be included in the acknowledgements section.

6. Use of spaces between sentences

Please use a single, not a double, space between sentences.

7. Use of Latin abbreviations

All Latin abbreviations should be italicised, including i.e. and e.g. Words in non-European languages should also appear in italics, e.gtsetse.

8. Use of hyphen, en-dash, and em-dash

Use hyphen (-) in compounds like “parallel-sided”, “hook-like”, “yellow-brown” (but “yellowish brown”), as well as in certain names, e.g. “Kirk-Spriggs”. Use en-dash (–) between number sequences and month sequences, e.g. Figs 24–28 (but Figs 24, 25), May–June, 1–256 pp. Use em-dash (—) sparringly.

9. Citation of scientific names

When citing scientific names and other words that should appear in italic script, ensure that only those words are converted to italics. This is especially important when subgeneric names are used, in which case the brackets should not be italicised, i.eSimulium (Lewisellumethiopiense Fain & Oomen is correctSimulium (Lewisellum) ethiopiense Fain & Oomen, is incorrect. Full stops (periods) after generic name abbreviations should not be italicised either.

The original author and date of a genus or a species name should be cited at least once.

10. Use of single and double quote marks

Double quote marks (“…”) should be used for direct quotations from published literature, e.g. . Alternately: Curtonotum Macquart, Kirk-Spriggs (2007: 23) stated “… this species-group is common on the arid southwest of Namibia …> Note use of three full stops (periods) followed by, or proceeded, by a space for direct quotations that begin or end in mid-sentence. Single quote marks (‘…’) should only be used for quotes within quotes and when the usage of a word or a phrase differs from conventional. Ensure that all quote marks are not ‘orphaned’ before the submission of manuscripts.

11. Use of footnotes

Footnotes are not permitted, use endnotes if required.

12. Use of numerical values

For numerical values, use decimal point, not comma.

13. Use of male and female symbols (♂♀)

For the male symbol (♂) use *M ( no space between * and M), for the female (♀) use *F. Do not double these for plurals, i.e. for males (♂♂), or females (♀♀).

14. Citation of figure numbers

Use “Fig.” and “Figs” for the text citations to figures that appear in the chapter contribution (with full stop (period) after the singular use, but not the plural) and “fig.” and “figs” for reference to illustrations in other publications.

15. Compliance with International Codes of nomenclature

All systematic chapter contributions should follow the relevant Code of Nomenclature.

16. Use of botanical names

Botanical generic names are not followed by author names, as in zoological nomenclature; but each species name should be followed by its author (without the date of description) the first time it is cited in the text. At first mention the family name of the genus should be included after the generic name in brackets, e.g. “Acacia(Fabaceae)” or “Acacia karoo Hayne (Fabaceae)”.